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· 7 min read


As an e-commerce consultant with over a decade of experience optimizing online stores, I've seen firsthand how proper product tagging can make or break a business. In today's fast-paced digital marketplace, automated product tagging isn't just a luxury—it's a necessity for staying competitive. Let me walk you through why it matters and how you can implement it in your store.

Why Automated Product Tagging is a Game-Changer

Before we dive into the how-to, let's talk about why you need this. Automated tagging uses AI and machine learning to categorize and label your products without manual input. This means:

  1. You save countless hours that your team would spend manually tagging products.
  2. Your tagging becomes more consistent and accurate, reducing human error.
  3. Your site search functionality improves dramatically, helping customers find what they want faster.
  4. You can offer more relevant product recommendations, boosting cross-sells and upsells.
  5. Your inventory management becomes a breeze with better-organized product data.

Now, let's get into the nitty-gritty of how to set this up.

Step 1: Assess Your Current Tagging System

Before diving into automation, it's crucial to lay a solid foundation. First things first—take a good, hard look at your existing tags and categories. Are they consistent? Do they cover all necessary attributes? Identify any gaps or inconsistencies. This audit will be your roadmap for improvement. This starts with a thorough assessment of your existing tagging system and the development of a robust product taxonomy.

1. Audit Your Current Tags:

Begin by evaluating your existing tags and categories. Are they consistent across products? Do they cover all necessary attributes? Identify any gaps or inconsistencies in your current system.

2. Define Your Product Taxonomy:

A well-structured product taxonomy is the backbone of effective automated tagging. Here's how to approach it:

* Hierarchical Structure:

Create a clear hierarchy of categories and subcategories. For example: Electronics > Smartphones > Android Phones > Samsung Galaxy Series

* Attribute Mapping:

Define key attributes for each category. For smartphones, this might include:

  1. Brand
  2. Model
  3. Operating System
  4. Screen Size
  5. Camera Resolution
  6. Storage Capacity
  7. Color

3. Standardize Naming Conventions:

Ensure consistency in how you name and describe attributes. For instance, decide whether you'll use "Color" or "Colour", "Size" or "Dimensions".

Organize Your Data:

With your taxonomy in place, it's time to structure your data:

* Create a Master Data Sheet:

Develop a comprehensive spreadsheet that includes all possible attributes across your product range. This becomes your single source of truth.

* Use Consistent Formatting:

Ensure all product titles, descriptions, and attribute values follow a consistent format. For example: [Brand][Model] [Key Feature][Color]

* Fill in Data Gaps:

Identify any missing information in your current product data and fill these gaps. Complete data leads to more accurate automated tagging.

* Implement Data Validation:

Set up rules to validate data entry. This could include drop-down lists for predefined values or format checks for things like SKUs or product codes.

5. Consider Future Scalability:

As you define your taxonomy and organize your data, think ahead. Will your structure accommodate new product lines or categories you might add in the future? Build in flexibility to your system.

6. Align with Search Terms:

Review your site search data and customer service inquiries. Are there common terms customers use that aren't reflected in your current taxonomy? Incorporate these to improve searchability.

By taking the time to define a clear product taxonomy and organize your data effectively, you're setting the stage for successful automated tagging. This foundational work ensures that your automated system will have high-quality, consistent data to work with, leading to more accurate and useful tags. Remember, a well-structured taxonomy not only aids in automated tagging but also improves overall site navigation, search functionality, and even your ability to manage inventory effectively. It's an investment that pays dividends across your entire e-commerce operation.

Read More: The Future of AI in Automated Product Catalog Management Beyond 2024

Step 2: Choose the Right Automated Tagging Solution

There's no one-size-fits-all here. When selecting a solution, consider options that offer:

  1. AI and machine learning capabilities
  2. Natural language processing for text analysis
  3. Image recognition for visual tagging
  4. Easy integration with your e-commerce platform

One emerging technology to keep an eye on is AI Agents for eCommerce. These advanced systems go beyond simple tagging to provide comprehensive automation for various e-commerce tasks. They can handle product tagging, inventory management, customer service, and even personalized marketing. While not all businesses may need such extensive capabilities, AI Agents represent the cutting edge of e-commerce automation and could be worth exploring for larger operations or those planning significant scaling.

When making your choice, consider factors like:

  1. Your store size and product variety
  2. Budget constraints
  3. Specific tagging needs (text-based, image-based, or both)
  4. Integration capabilities with your current e-commerce platform
  5. Scalability for future growth

Remember, the goal is to find a solution that not only meets your current needs but can also grow with your business.

Step 3: Prepare Your Product Data

Garbage in, garbage out. Before you start automating, ensure your product data is clean and standardized. This means:

  1. Consistent formatting for product titles and descriptions (as mentioned above in Step 1)
  2. High-quality product images
  3. Complete attribute information for each product Trust me, this prep work pays off in spades later.

Step 4: Set Up and Configure Your Automated Tagging System

Once you've chosen your tool, it's time to integrate it with your e-commerce platform. Most solutions offer APIs or plugins for popular platforms like Shopify or WooCommerce. Work with your development team to ensure a smooth integration. Next, customize your tag categories and attributes. Think about what matters most to your customers when they're searching for products.

Step 5: Train the Automated System

Here's where the magic happens. Feed your system a set of manually tagged products to start. This 'training set' teaches the AI what to look for. The larger and more diverse this set, the better your results will be.

Step 7: Implement Across Your Entire Catalog Management Workflow

Once you're satisfied with the accuracy, it's time for the big rollout. But don't just set it and forget it. Monitor the results closely in the first few weeks. Be prepared to make adjustments as needed.

Step 8: Maintain, Monitor and Update

The work doesn't stop after implementation. Regularly review your tagging system. As you add new products or enter new categories, you may need to refine your automated tagging rules.

Best Practices and Common Pitfalls

Here are some pro tips I've learned the hard way:

  1. Don't completely eliminate human oversight. Automated doesn't mean hands-off.
  2. Keep your product information up-to-date. Outdated info leads to inaccurate tags.
  3. Use consistent naming conventions across your store.
  4. Implement a feedback loop. If customers are consistently searching for products using terms you haven't considered, add those to your tagging system.

Measuring Success

How do you know if all this effort is paying off? Keep an eye on these metrics:

  1. Site search usage and conversion rates
  2. Time spent on site
  3. Average order value
  4. Customer feedback and support tickets related to finding products

Tools like Google Analytics and your e-commerce platform's built-in analytics can help track these.


Automated product tagging isn't just about efficiency—it's about creating a better shopping experience for your customers. When done right, it can significantly boost your store's performance and your bottom line.

Remember, the key to success is continuous improvement. Technology evolves, customer behaviors change, and your store grows. Keep refining your automated tagging system, and you'll stay ahead of the competition. Have you implemented automated tagging in your store? I'd love to hear about your experiences, or if you are willing to learn more, contact us!

· 7 min read


Introduction to AI in Product Catalog Management

Product catalog management has been greatly enhanced by the integration of Artificial Intelligence. Artificial intelligence enables companies to automate numerous tasks, improve data accuracy, and provide a more personalized experience to customers. With AI-driven catalog management tools, categorization, tagging, and inventory updates become more efficient and error-free. By minimizing human errors, AI ensures higher data accuracy and consistency. AI analyzes market trends and demand fluctuations to optimize pricing strategies. By streamlining cataloging tasks, AI in automated product catalog management allows businesses to manage large volumes of product data swiftly and effectively.

As the e-commerce landscape becomes increasingly competitive, leveraging AI in catalog management offers a significant advantage, helping businesses stay ahead by improving operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.

Initially, product catalog management was a manual, time-consuming process prone to human errors. The introduction of basic automation tools began to alleviate some of these burdens, but it wasn't until the advent of AI that significant improvements were realized.

Potential Applications beyond 2024

1. Automated Product Categorization and Tagging

As products are automatically categorized and tagged based on the product metadata and attributes, labor is reduced and errors are minimized. This leads to more organized catalogs and enhances searchability for customers. For example, in an online electronics store, AI can analyze product descriptions, specifications, and customer reviews to accurately categorize items such as laptops, smartphones, and accessories. This automated process ensures that each product is tagged correctly with relevant attributes like brand, model, features, and compatibility, making it easier for customers to find exactly what they're looking for without sifting through irrelevant items.

2. Dynamic pricing optimization

AI algorithms analyze market trends, competitor pricing, and demand fluctuations to optimize pricing strategies. This ensures competitive pricing while maximizing profit margins. According to a McKinsey report, dynamic pricing driven by AI can increase revenue by 2-5%. For example, in the retail industry, AI algorithms analyze market trends, competitor pricing, and demand fluctuations to optimize pricing strategies. Suppose a retailer notices that a particular product is trending and in high demand. The AI system can suggest adjusting the price based on this demand, competitor prices, and historical sales data. If competitor prices are higher and demand is surging, the AI might recommend a slight price increase to maximize profit. Conversely, if demand drops or competitors lower their prices, the AI can suggest a price reduction to stay competitive. According to a McKinsey report, AI-powered dynamic pricing can increase revenue by 2-5%.

3. Personalized product recommendations

The use of artificial intelligence increases sales and enhances customer satisfaction by providing personalized product recommendations based on customer data. Businesses leveraging AI for personalization have seen a 15% uplift in sales on average, as reported by BCG. For example, in the online fashion retail industry, AI analyzes customer browsing and purchase history to recommend clothing items tailored to individual preferences. If a customer frequently buys athletic wear, the AI might suggest new arrivals in sportswear or notify the customer about upcoming sales on these items. This personalized approach not only increases the likelihood of purchase but also enhances the overall shopping experience.

4. Intelligent Search and Discovery

AI-powered search engines understand natural language queries and context, delivering more accurate and relevant search results to users. Gartner predicts that by 2025, AI will handle 80% of all customer interactions. For example, in the e-commerce industry, if a customer searches for "comfortable running shoes for flat feet," an AI-powered search engine can interpret the specific requirements and deliver tailored results, such as running shoes with extra arch support and cushioning. This level of understanding and accuracy not only helps customers find exactly what they need but also enhances their overall shopping experience, leading to higher satisfaction and increased sales.

5. Improve Data Privacy and Security

AI-powered catalog management systems enhance data privacy and security by identifying sensitive information and enforcing governance policies. AI algorithms analyze metadata to ensure compliance with legal requirements, safeguarding data integrity and confidentiality. For example, in a healthcare organization using AI-powered catalog management, sensitive patient data such as medical histories and personal information can be automatically identified and tagged with strict access controls. This ensures that only authorized personnel can view or update sensitive information, maintaining compliance with regulations like HIPAA and GDPR while protecting patient privacy.

6. AI-Enabled Analytics

AI in Product Catalog Management leverages powerful analytics to identify patterns and shifts in customer behavior, enabling data-driven decisions that enhance online sales. eCommerce analytics encompass metrics across the entire customer journey, from discovery and conversion to retention and advocacy. For instance, in the fashion industry, AI can analyze customer preferences and buying patterns to recommend trending clothing items. If the data shows an increasing interest in summer dresses, the AI can suggest prominently displaying these items, leading to higher conversions and improved sales.

Preparing for the AI-Driven Future

Skills and Training Needed

Organizations must invest in training their workforce to handle AI tools and interpret AI-driven insights. Upskilling employees will be crucial for leveraging AI effectively. A LinkedIn report indicates that AI skills are among the top five in-demand skills globally.

Organizational Changes

Implementing AI may require structural changes within the organization. Companies need to foster a culture of innovation and adaptability to embrace AI technologies fully. IBM reports that 61% of high-performing companies have adopted a culture of AI and innovation.

Investment Considerations

Investing in AI infrastructure and tools is essential for long-term benefits. Companies should evaluate the cost-benefit ratio and plan their investments strategically. According to Accenture, AI investments are expected to boost profitability by an average of 38% by 2035.

Case Studies


As a global fashion retailer, Zara uses AI to enhance its product catalog management, particularly in automated inventory management and supply chain management. As a result of the use of artificial intelligence algorithms, Zara is able to accurately predict fashion trends and customer preferences, enabling them to plan inventory more effectively and turn around orders more quickly.

Trend Analysis and Forecasting:

AI helps Zara analyze vast amounts of data from social media, customer feedback, and sales trends to identify emerging fashion trends. This enables Zara to quickly adapt its product offerings to meet customer demands, ensuring that its catalog remains relevant and appealing.

Personalized Shopping Experience:

Zara uses AI to provide personalized shopping experiences for its customers. By analyzing browsing behavior and purchase history, Zara's AI-powered recommendation system suggests products that align with individual preferences. This personalized approach has been instrumental in increasing customer loyalty and driving repeat purchases.


With AI, processes are automated, data accuracy is improved, and customer experiences are enhanced. The benefits of AI outweigh challenges such as data quality and integration. Continuing to evolve, AI will become increasingly sophisticated in its applications for catalog management. Businesses that invest in AI today will be well-positioned to lead the market in the future. By embracing AI, companies can streamline catalog management processes, enhance customer satisfaction, and improve operational efficiency. Explore the capabilities of the Navan AI platform today to see how it can revolutionize your catalog management and customer engagement strategies.

· 6 min read



Gartner predicts that by 2025, 80% of customer interactions in eCommerce will be managed by AI technologies. As a result of these technologies, eCommerce businesses are able to process and analyze vast amounts of data, predict trends, and automate processes, leading to a more efficient and personalized customer experience. Additionally, McKinsey & Company reports that companies using AI for sales and marketing have seen a 30% increase in conversion rates and a 25% reduction in customer acquisition costs.

Consumer expectations and technological advancements are driving rapid changes in eCommerce. In this new world of technology, AI agents stand out as a transformative force. They're enhancing customer experiences, putting operations in order, and boosting profitability. In this blog, we’ll explore how eCommerce can leverage AI agents to stay ahead in a competitive market.

AI in the Ecommerce Industry: Innovations and Benefits

Several industries, including eCommerce, have benefited from artificial intelligence (AI). In the past few years, artificial intelligence has revolutionized how businesses operate and interact with customers. According to a report by Grand View Research, the global AI in the retail market was valued at $5.79 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 23.9% from 2021 to 2028. AI in eCommerce encompasses a wide range of applications, from chatbots and virtual assistants to advanced data analytics and machine learning algorithms.

AI in ECommerce: How AI Agents are game changer for the industry

1. Personalization at Scale

The use of artificial intelligence agents is revolutionizing personalization in eCommerce. With the help of AI agents, customers can enjoy highly personalized shopping experiences by analyzing vast amounts of data, including browsing history, purchase patterns, and preferences. By predicting future purchases and offering tailored promotions, they are able to recommend products that suit the tastes of their customers. This level of personalization not only increases customer satisfaction but also drives higher conversion rates and boosts customer loyalty.

2. Enhanced Customer Support

AI agents are significantly improving customer support through chatbots and virtual assistants. These AI-driven tools can handle a wide range of customer inquiries, from order status and product information to troubleshooting and returns. Unlike human agents, AI agents are available 24/7, ensuring that customers receive timely assistance regardless of the time zone. Furthermore, AI agents can learn from past interactions, becoming more efficient and effective over time.

3. Inventory Management and Demand Forecasting

Efficient and automated inventory management is crucial for eCommerce businesses to avoid overstocking or stockouts. AI agents can analyze sales data, market trends, and even external factors like seasonality and economic conditions to predict demand accurately. This enables businesses to optimize their inventory levels, reduce holding costs, and ensure that popular products are always in stock. Improved demand forecasting also helps in planning for marketing campaigns and seasonal promotions.

4. Fraud Detection and Prevention

ECommerce platforms are often targets for fraudulent activities. AI agents can enhance security by monitoring transactions in real-time and identifying suspicious patterns. Machine learning algorithms can analyze factors such as transaction amount, purchase frequency, and geographic location to flag potential fraud. This proactive approach of Ai in eCommerce helps in preventing fraudulent activities, protecting both the business and its customers.

5. Dynamic Pricing

AI agents can help eCommerce businesses implement dynamic pricing strategies, adjusting prices based on real-time market conditions, competitor pricing, and customer demand. This allows businesses to maximize revenue and stay competitive. For example, an AI agent might increase prices during high demand periods or offer discounts to clear out excess inventory. Dynamic pricing ensures that pricing strategies are responsive and aligned with market dynamics.

6. Improved Search and Navigation

AI agents enhance the search and navigation functionalities on eCommerce websites. Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables AI-powered search engines to understand and process user queries more effectively, providing accurate and relevant search results. Additionally, AI agents can analyze user behavior to optimize website navigation, making it easier for customers to find the products they are looking for, thereby improving the overall user experience.

7. Automated Marketing Campaigns

AI agents can automate and optimize marketing campaigns by analyzing customer data and identifying the best times and channels to reach potential buyers. This includes personalized email marketing, targeted social media ads, and even automated content generation. By delivering the right message to the right audience at the right time, AI-driven marketing campaigns can significantly improve engagement and conversion rates.

8. Enhanced Product Descriptions and Visuals

AI agents for eCommerce can generate detailed and engaging product descriptions using Natural Language Generation (NLG) techniques. They can also enhance product images through AI-powered editing tools that improve image quality and consistency. These enhancements help in providing a richer and more informative shopping experience, aiding customers in making informed purchasing decisions.

Use Case: AI-Powered Order Tracking and Issue Resolution

Think about an eCommerce platform with a customer ordering a product, but there is a delivery issue. According to the system, the product has been delivered, but the customer reports that they have not received it. Here’s how an AI agent can handle this situation efficiently:

Monitoring in real-time: The AI agent continuously monitors delivery statuses and cross-references them against customer feedback.

Proactive Communication: An AI agent automatically initiates contact with the customer once he/she detects a discrepancy (i.e., the system shows delivered but nothing has been confirmed by the customer).

Customer Feedback: During the call, the AI agent asks the customer to confirm whether the product has been received.

  1. If the customer confirms receipt, the AI agent updates the system and closes the inquiry.

  2. If the customer reports that the product has not been delivered, the AI agent escalates the issue to a human representative for further investigation.

Escalation and Resolution: The AI agent escalates the issue to the human representative and provides all necessary details, such as tracking information and customer feedback, for the issue to be resolved as soon as possible.

As a result of using AI in eCommerce, customers will not only be satisfied by proactively addressing issues, but they will also be able to resolve potential delivery problems in a timely manner, making a positive impact on customer satisfaction.


The integration of AI agents into eCommerce operations is not just a trend but a necessity for businesses aiming to thrive in a digital-first world. From personalization and customer support to inventory management and dynamic pricing, AI agents offer a myriad of benefits that can drive growth and efficiency. As AI technology continues to evolve, the potential applications in eCommerce will only expand, offering even more innovative solutions to meet the demands of the modern consumer.

By leveraging AI agents, eCommerce businesses can not only enhance their operational capabilities but also deliver superior customer experiences, ensuring long-term success and competitiveness in the market.

· 6 min read

Use Case - AI Agent for eCommerce - Automated Product Management


In today's fast-paced eCommerce and retail industry, efficiency is more than just a buzzword—it's a necessity. As competition intensifies, companies which are leading online clothing retailers, are turning to AI agents for automated product management. This innovation not only streamlines operations but also ensures accuracy and consistency in product listings, which is crucial for driving sales growth.

A recent study by McKinsey reveals that AI can reduce operational costs by up to 30% in retail businesses. Leading online clothing retailers are increasingly adopting AI agents for automated product management, ensuring accuracy and consistency in product listings while driving sales growth. AI technologies can change how businesses handle product listings, customer interactions, and inventory by automating routine tasks, thus saving time, reducing costs, and optimizing resources. This allows companies to focus on strategic growth and customer engagement, ultimately enhancing productivity and improving their bottom line.

Key Benefits of AI Implementation:

  1. Time Savings: AI agents drastically reduce the time required to list products across multiple platforms. What might take a team several hours or even days can now be accomplished in minutes. This efficiency is particularly beneficial during peak seasons or when expanding product lines.

  2. Cost Reduction: Automating tasks like product categorization, content generation, and multi-platform uploads minimizes the need for extensive manual labor. This reduction in labor costs can significantly improve a company's bottom line. According to a study by McKinsey, AI can reduce operational costs by up to 30% in retail businesses.

  3. Resource Optimization: With AI handling repetitive tasks, employees can focus on more critical areas such as customer service, strategic planning, and market analysis. This shift not only enhances productivity but also leads to better job satisfaction and reduced turnover rates.

These advancements not only streamline operations but also contribute to better job satisfaction and lower turnover rates, positioning businesses to thrive in an ever-evolving market.

Let's go through how AI Agents for eCommerce Product Management and Inventory Management come into play with a practical industry-based use case approach:

AI Agents for eCommerce: FashionHub's AI-Driven Approach for Automated Product Management

Business Scenario

For example, let's take an imaginary clothing retailer, "FashionHub," which sells a wide range of apparel online. FashionHub's product catalog includes men's, women's, party, and casual wear. The company faces challenges in efficiently managing product listings on various eCommerce platforms such as Amazon and Shopify.


  1. Improve Efficiency: Automate the identification and classification of clothing items.

  2. Enhance Accuracy: Ensure consistent and accurate product details across all eCommerce platforms.

  3. Save Time: Reduce the manual effort involved in uploading product details and images.

  4. Scalability: Enable the seamless handling of a growing number of products.

  5. Solution: AI Agent for Automated Product Management

Features and Capabilities

Product Identification, Classification and Recommendations

The AI agent uses computer vision to analyze images of clothing items. It identifies the type of clothing (e.g., men's, women's, party, casual) based on visual characteristics and predefined categories. Ai agents in eCommerce largely help with smart suggestions of products to customers based on their browsing and purchase history.

Automated Content Generation

Automatically generates product descriptions, titles, and specifications based on the identified category and attributes. Includes details such as fabric type, size options, color variations, and style descriptions.

Multi-Platform Integration

Integrates with major eCommerce platforms like Amazon and Shopify through APIs. Automatically uploads product images, descriptions, prices, and other relevant details to multiple platforms simultaneously.

Dynamic Price Optimization

Allows users to set prices and other specific details for each product. Ensures consistency across all platforms by updating changes in one central location.

Bulk Processing

Supports bulk uploading of multiple products at once, significantly reducing the time required for large catalogs.

Automated Inventory Management

Focuses on real-time inventory monitoring and automated reordering of low stock items. This ensures that stock levels are always optimal, preventing both overstock and stockouts, and improving overall inventory efficiency.



Image Upload

User uploads images of new clothing items to the AI agent.

Automated Classification and Content Generation

The AI agent analyzes images and classifies each item into categories such as men's, women's, party, or casual wear. It then generates detailed product descriptions, specifications, and titles based on the identified categories and attributes.


Multi-Platform Upload

The AI agent uploads the complete product information, including images, descriptions, prices, and other details, to all connected eCommerce platforms like Amazon and Shopify.

Verification and Confirmation

The user verifies the uploaded listings to ensure accuracy and completeness.

AI Chatbot and Data Assistant

The AI chatbot assists in real-time customer interactions, answering queries, and providing product recommendations.


Signing Off - Harness the power of AI Agents for eCommerce

The implementation of AI agents for automated product management in the eCommerce and retail industry is a game-changer for companies like FashionHub. By leveraging advanced technologies such as computer vision and automated content generation, businesses can streamline their operations, enhance accuracy, and achieve significant time and cost savings. These AI-driven solutions not only optimize resource utilization but also ensure consistency and scalability, which are critical for maintaining a competitive edge in a rapidly evolving market.

As illustrated by FashionHub's example, the benefits of adopting AI agents extend beyond operational efficiency. They enable companies to focus on strategic initiatives, improve customer service, and ultimately drive sales growth. The future of eCommerce and retail is undeniably intertwined with AI, and those who embrace these technologies will be better positioned to thrive in this dynamic landscape. By automating routine tasks, reducing errors, and ensuring consistency across platforms, AI agents represent a pivotal step towards a more efficient and profitable business model.

Navan AI is built for this exact purpose—saving cost, time, and effort. Its suite of tools is designed to tackle the complexities of product management, from inventory tracking and pricing optimization to personalized marketing and customer engagement. Navan AI enhances product catalog management accuracy by 56% better than the industry standard. By harnessing the power of AI, businesses can make data-driven decisions, anticipate market trends, and respond swiftly to changes in consumer demand. To know more about how Navan AI can help in your eCommerce strategy, check out here

· 10 min read

What are AI Agents

AI agents are software programs that use artificial intelligence to perform tasks on their own. It learns from data, adapts to new information, and makes decisions or provides help. Examples include virtual assistants, chatbots, and recommendation systems.

Imagine having numerous tasks to complete and a team of employees to handle them. Now, picture intelligent programs—AI Agents—that can perform these tasks even more efficiently. These AI Agents make decisions, manage interactions, and streamline processes with remarkable precision and speed, turning routine tasks into exceptional outcomes.

How do AI Agents work?

AI Agents perceive their environment and take actions using a mix of rule-based systems, decision-makers, and machine learning. They process past and present data to pursue optimal outcomes, continually adapting and evolving to achieve their goals.

Autonomous Problem Solvers

Unlike traditional AI, which needs specific prompts, AI Agents operate on their own. They are driven by goals, taking on tasks without constant input. This independence lets them adapt to new information and environments smoothly.

Beyond Standard Automation

AI Agents shine in uncertain situations, managing vast data streams and exploring new areas. They represent the next level of intelligent automation, performing tasks like browsing the internet, managing apps, conducting financial transactions, and controlling devices.

A Step Towards AGI

The rise of AI Agents is a significant step toward Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). These agents show human-like flexibility, mastering various tasks and indicating a major shift toward an unprecedented future.

Interactive and Adaptive

AI Agents continuously learn and adjust, trying out new solutions to achieve their goals. Their ability to spot and fix mistakes makes them perfect for complex and unpredictable tasks.

Types of AI Agents

1. Simple Reflex Agent

A simple reflex agent operates by following a set of predefined rules to make decisions. It reacts solely to the current situation, without taking into account past events or future consequences.

This type of agent is ideal for environments with stable rules and straightforward actions, as its behavior is purely reactive and responsive to immediate changes in the environment.


A vending machine serves as an example of a simple reflex agent. It operates based on a straightforward condition-action rule, when a coin is inserted, and a selection is made, it dispenses the corresponding product. This process does not involve any memory or consideration of past actions, it simply reacts to the current input, demonstrating the fundamental principle of a simple reflex agent.

2. Model-based Reflex Agent

A model-based reflex agent takes actions based on its current perception and an internal state that represents the unobservable aspects of the world. It updates its internal state by considering:

How the world changes independently of the agent How the agent’s actions influence the world


Amazon Bedrock is a premier example of a cautionary model-based reflex agent, utilizing foundational models to simulate operations, gain insights, and make informed decisions for effective planning and optimization. By continuously refining its models with real-world data, Bedrock adapts and optimizes operations, predicts outcomes, and selects optimal strategies through scenario planning and parameter adjustments.

3. Goal-based Agents

Goal-based agents are designed to use information from their environment to achieve specific objectives. They use search algorithms to identify the most efficient path to reach their goals within a given environment.

Also known as rule-based agents, these systems follow pre-established rules to achieve their objectives, taking specific actions based on certain conditions. They are relatively easy to design and can manage complex tasks, making them suitable for applications in robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing.


We can say that ChatGPT is a goal-based agent and also a learning agent. As a goal-based agent, it aims to provide high-quality responses to user queries. It chooses actions that are likely to assist users in finding the information they seek and achieving their desired goal of obtaining accurate and helpful responses.

4. Utility-based Agents

Utility-based agents make decisions aimed at maximizing a utility function or value. They select actions that offer the highest expected utility, which measures the desirability of an outcome.

These agents are well-suited for handling complex and uncertain situations with flexibility and adaptability. They are commonly used in scenarios where they need to compare and choose between multiple options, such as in resource allocation, scheduling, and game-playing.


One example of a utility-based AI agent is the route recommendation system used by Google Maps. This system solves the problem of finding the 'best' route to reach a destination. Google Maps evaluates multiple factors, such as current traffic conditions, distance, and estimated travel time, to determine the most efficient route for the user. By continuously updating and optimizing these variables, Google Maps helps users achieve their goal of reaching their destination in the quickest and most convenient way possible.

5. Hierarchical Agent

A Hierarchical Agent is an advanced AI tool that helps businesses manage and optimize complex operations across different levels. It efficiently allocates tasks and responsibilities based on the skill levels and expertise of team members. This system allows businesses to monitor team performance, improve communication, and increase productivity.

Structured in a hierarchical model, these agents consist of various levels or modules. Each level handles a specific subtask and communicates with both higher and lower levels to exchange information and work towards the overall goal. Lower-level agents focus on detailed, specific tasks, while higher-level agents coordinate and manage these tasks. This structure distributes the workload, improves efficiency, and solves complex problems by breaking them into simpler parts, enhancing overall performance through effective information sharing and decision-making.

6. Learning agents

Learning agents are AI systems that improve their performance over time by learning from data and experiences. They use machine learning techniques to adapt and make better decisions as they gather more information.

These agents acquire knowledge and enhance their performance through different learning methods like supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. In supervised learning, agents are trained with labeled data to recognize patterns and make predictions. Unsupervised learning allows agents to explore data independently, uncovering hidden patterns without prior knowledge. Reinforcement learning involves agents interacting with their environment, learning optimal strategies through rewards and penalties based on their actions.

Examples of AI Agents:

AI Fashion Assistant

  1. User Uploads a Dress Image: The user uploads an image of a dress they are interested in.

  2. Provide Dress Details: The user is asked to provide details about the dress, such as:

    a. Cloth Type (e.g., cotton, silk)

    b. Size (e.g., S, M, L)

    c. Occasion (e.g., party, office, casual)

  3. Model Training: The AI uses these details to train its model, learning to recognize similar attributes in other dresses.

  4. Analyze New Dresses: The user can upload more dress images, and the AI will identify the cloth type, size, and occasion based on the trained model.

  5. Confirm and Adjust: The user can confirm or correct the AI's suggestions, further refining the model.

AI Agents for Computer Vision

AI agents for computer vision are transforming how we process and analyze visual data. These agents can compile vast amounts of images and videos, train models, and deploy them in real-time applications. For instance, they can identify objects in security footage, assist in medical image analysis, and even enable autonomous vehicles to navigate safely. Their ability to understand and interpret visual information makes them invaluable across various industries, providing real-time insights and enhancing operational efficiency.

Autonomous Robots

When it comes to handling physical tasks, our robotic helpers are real game-changers. These independent machines excel in various settings, doing everything from household chores to industrial heavy lifting. Consider those smart vacuum cleaners that roam around our homes, keeping them clean without any fuss. Or take a peek into Amazon’s warehouses, where robots efficiently sort and transport items, streamlining the whole operation. These robots are more than just machines; they’re equipped with advanced sensors and AI smarts that allow them to understand their surroundings, make intelligent choices, and carry out tasks with barely any human help needed.

AI Agents for Personal Assistants

AI-powered personal assistants have become increasingly common in our daily lives. These savvy assistants, powered by artificial intelligence, are like helpful neighbors who understand our needs and respond accordingly. Think of Siri, Alexa, or Google Assistant – they’re not just software but more like digital buddies. They remind us of important appointments, answer our curious questions, keep our schedules on track, and even manage our smart homes. What’s great is that they learn about us as we interact with them, making their assistance more tailored and valuable as time goes by.

Top 5 AI Agents to consider:

#1 Navan AI is the #1 rated multi-modal AI agent for fashion and e-commerce. It is the world's first AI agent specifically designed to help fashion and e-commerce businesses leverage artificial intelligence. enables businesses to create computer vision AI agents without the need for coding, allowing them to train AI to analyze images and videos, thereby unlocking valuable potential for their operations.

#2 IBM Watsonx Assistant

IBM Watsonx Assistant is a powerful AI-driven conversational platform designed to streamline customer interactions. It enables businesses to build intelligent virtual assistants that can handle customer queries, provide personalized support, and automate tasks across various channels. With advanced natural language processing and machine learning capabilities, Watsonx Assistant enhances user experiences, improves operational efficiency, and adapts to evolving customer needs, all while being easy to integrate and customize.

#3 Spell

Spell offers a sleek user interface with a powerful AI agent powered by GPT-4 underneath. It automates daily tasks and, with web access enabled, enhances productivity even further. Unlike OpenAI ChatGPT, which handles a single prompt at a time, Spell allows multiple prompts to run simultaneously. Simply hit play, input your ideas, topics, or data, and watch as the AI transforms your content. Plus, Spell provides an impressive array of curated templates and prompts to help you get started.

#4 Synthflow

Synthflow is an AI voice agent for handling inbound and outbound calls, perfect for scheduling appointments, qualifying leads, and sending reminders. No programming skills are needed to create a voice assistant that can manage calls and book appointments 24/7. Customize agents to fit your needs or use them as is. Instantly upload data from PDFs, CSVs, PPTs, URLs, and more, making your agent smarter with each new data point.

#5 Fini

Fini can transform your knowledge base into an AI-driven chat in just 2 minutes—no coding required. This 24/7 AI agent seamlessly integrates with platforms like Discord and Slack, enhancing your interactive chat capabilities. Boost user engagement and retention by ensuring customers receive immediate answers anytime. If the AI encounters an issue, customers are smoothly transitioned to a human representative, ensuring continuous support.


AI agents represent a significant leap in technological evolution, blending artificial intelligence with human-like interaction and decision-making. As partners in strategic decision-making and customer engagement, their influence is set to grow. With AI Agents, businesses can harness these intelligent agents to drive innovation, efficiency, and customer satisfaction. AI agents accelerate processes and support everyday work, offering students opportunities to specialize in AI and work on innovative projects, while lecturers can optimize teaching and create more effective educational experiences.

· 7 min read


Large Language Models (LLMs) have become potent instruments in the quickly developing field of artificial intelligence, able to produce text that is both coherent and contextually relevant. These models are trained on large and varied datasets and use the transformer architecture to take advantage of the attention mechanism to capture long-range dependencies.

They acquire emergent features from this training, which helps them excel in a variety of language-related tasks. Pre-trained LLMs perform well in general applications, but they frequently perform poorly in specialized fields like law, finance, or medicine where accurate, subject-specific expertise is essential.

To overcome these drawbacks and improve the usefulness of LLMs in specialized domains, two main approaches are utilized: retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) and fine-tuning.

Constraints with Pre-trained LLMs

LLMs have drawbacks such generating biased or erroneous information, having trouble answering complex or nuanced questions, and perpetuating prejudices in society. They also depend significantly on the caliber of input prompts and present privacy and security hazards. For increased reliability, these problems call for strategies like retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) and fine-tuning. This blog will examine RAG and fine-tuning and when each is appropriate for an LLM.

Types of Fine-Tuning

1. Knowledge Inclusion

Using tailored language, this strategy incorporates domain-specific knowledge into the LLM. Training an LLM with textbooks and medical periodicals, for instance, can improve its capacity to produce pertinent and accurate medical information. Similarly, training with books on technical analysis and finance can help an LLM create responses that are specific to their field. By doing this, the model's understanding domain is expanded, making it capable of producing replies that are more accurate and suitable for the given context.

2. Response Tailored to the Task

Using question-and-answer pairs, this method trains the LLM to customize its responses for particular tasks. An LLM can be made to produce responses that are more matched to customer service requirements by adjusting it through customer support interactions. The model gains the ability to comprehend and react to certain inquiries through the use of Q&A pairs, which enhances its usefulness for focused applications.

For LLMs, what is the use of retrieval-augmented generation (RAG)?

By merging text generation and information retrieval, retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) improves LLM performance. In response to a query, RAG models dynamically retrieve pertinent documents from a vast corpus using semantic search, including this information into the generative process. Because of this method's ability to provide solutions that are accurate in context and enhanced with exact, current information, RAG is especially useful in fields like customer service, legal, and finance.

Comparison of RAG and Fine-Tuning Requirements

1. Data

Fine-Tuning: It is necessary to have a well-curated, extensive dataset that is unique to the target domain or task. Labeled data is required for supervised fine-tuning, particularly for Q&A functions.

RAG: For efficient document retrieval, access to a vast and varied corpus is necessary. Pre-labeling of data is not necessary because RAG makes use of already-existing information sources.

2. Compute

Fine-tuning: Retraining the model on the new dataset makes this process resource-intensive. needs a lot of processing resources, such as GPUs or TPUs, in order to train well. Nevertheless, we can significantly lower it with Parameter Efficient Fine-tuning (PEFT).

RAG: Needs effective retrieval mechanisms but is less resource-intensive in training. requires computing power for tasks related to both creation and retrieval, though not as much as model retraining

3. Technical Proficiency

Large language model fine tuning demands a high level of technical proficiency. Complex activities include creating fine-tuning objectives, supervising the fine-tuning process, and preparing and curating high-quality training datasets. need proficiency managing infrastructure as well.

Moderate to advanced technical proficiency is required for RAG. It can be difficult to set up retrieval systems, integrate with outside data sources, and guarantee data freshness. Technical expertise is also required for managing large-scale databases and creating effective retrieval algorithms.

Comparative Evaluation: RAG and Fine-Tuning

1. Static vs Dynamic Data

Static datasets that have been created and vetted prior to training are necessary for fine-tuning. Since the model's knowledge stays stable until it goes through another cycle of refinement, it is perfect for domains like historical data or accepted scientific knowledge where information is not constantly changing.

RAG accesses and integrates dynamic data by utilizing real-time information retrieval. Because of this, the model can respond with the most recent information based on quickly changing domains such as finance, news, or real-time customer support.

2. Hallucination

By focusing on domain-specific data, fine-tuning can help decrease some hallucinations. However, if the training data is biased or small, the model may still produce plausible but false information. By obtaining genuine information from trustworthy sources, RAG can dramatically lower the frequency of hallucinations. But in order to effectively reduce hallucinations, the system needs to access reliable and pertinent sources, thus making sure the documents it retrieves are accurate and of high quality is essential.

3. Customization of Models

With fine-tuning, the behavior of the model and its weights can be deeply customized based on the unique training data, producing outputs that are extremely customized for specific tasks or domains. RAG customizes without changing the fundamental modelers; instead, it does so by choosing and retrieving pertinent documents. With this method, there is more flexibility and it is simpler to adjust to new knowledge without requiring significant retraining.

Use Case Examples for RAG and Fine-Tuning

Medical Diagnostics and Recommendations

For applications in the medical industry, where precision and following established protocols are essential, fine-tuning is frequently more appropriate. By enhancing an LLM with carefully chosen clinical guidelines, research papers, and medical books, one may make sure the model offers accurate and situation-specific guidance. Nonetheless, including RAG might help you stay current on medical advancements and research. RAG can retrieve the most recent research and advancements, guaranteeing that the guidance is up to date and based on the most recent discoveries. For foundational information, fine-tuning and RAG for dynamic updates may therefore work best together.

Client Assistance

In the context of customer service, RAG is especially useful. Since customer inquiries are dynamic and solutions must be current, RAG is the best method for quickly locating pertinent documents and data. To deliver precise and prompt advice, a customer care bot that utilizes RAG, for example, can access a vast knowledge base, product manuals, and the most recent upgrades. Additionally, fine-tuning can customize the bot's reaction to the company's specifications and typical customer problems. RAG makes sure that responses are up to date and thorough, while fine-tuning guarantees consistency and relevancy.

Conducting Legal Research and Preparing Documents

Fine-tuning an extensive dataset of case law, laws, and legal literature is crucial in legal applications, where accuracy and conformity to legal precedents are critical. This guarantees that the model delivers precise and pertinent legal data for the given scenario. New case laws may also arise, and laws and regulations may alter. RAG can help in this situation by obtaining the most recent court cases and legal documentation. This combination makes it possible to provide legal practitioners with a highly effective legal research tool that is both extremely educated and current.


The requirements of the application will determine whether to use RAG, fine-tune, or a combination of the two. In many situations, RAG delivers dynamic, real-time information retrieval, while fine-tuning offers a strong foundation of domain-specific knowledge. has a no-code platform - where users can build computer vision models within minutes without any coding. Developers can sign up for free on

Want to add Vision AI machine vision to your business? Reach us on for a free consultation.

· 11 min read


The idea of data modeling, an essential procedure that describes how data is kept, arranged, and retrieved within a database or data system, will be covered in this blog. It entails transforming practical business requirements into an organised, logical manner that can be implemented in a database or data warehouse. We'll look at how data modeling develops a conceptual framework for comprehending the links and relationships between data within a domain or within an organisation. We'll also go over how crucial it is to create data structures and relationships that guarantee effective data manipulation, retrieval, and storage.

Data Modelers and Engineers

Key positions in data administration and analysis are held by data engineers and data modelers, who each bring special talents and knowledge to bear on maximising the potential of data inside a company. Clarifying each other's roles and duties helps facilitate their collaboration in creating and maintaining reliable data infrastructures.

Data engineers

Data engineers are in charge of creating, building, and maintaining the architectures and systems that enable the effective management and accessibility of data. Their duties frequently include:

1. Constructing and preserving data pipelines

They build the framework needed to load, extract, and transform data (ETL) from different sources.

2. Data administration and storage:

To maintain data accessibility and organization, they develop and deploy database systems, data lakes, and other storage solutions.

3. Optimising performance:

Data engineers optimize data storage and query execution as part of their job to make sure data operations are operating effectively.

4. Working together with interested parties:

They collaborate closely with data scientists, business analysts, and other users to comprehend data requirements and put in place solutions that support data-driven decision-making.

5. Ensuring the integrity and quality of data:

To guarantee that users have access to correct and dependable information, they put in place procedures and systems for monitoring, validating, and cleaning data.

Data Modelers

The primary goal of data modelers is creating the system architecture for data management. They must comprehend business requirements and convert them into data structures that facilitate effective data analysis, retrieval, and storage. Important duties include of:

1. Creating logical, physical, and conceptual data models

They develop models that specify the relationships between data and how databases will hold it.

2. Specifying the relationships and data entities:

Data modelers specify the relationships between the important things that must be represented in an organization's data system.

3. Providing uniformity and standardization in data:

For data elements, they set standards and naming conventions to provide uniformity throughout the company.

4. Working together with architects and data engineers:

In order to make sure that the data architecture properly supports the created models, data modelers collaborate closely with data engineers.

5. Data strategy and governance:

They frequently contribute to the definition of guidelines and best practices for data management inside the company through their work in data governance.

Although the responsibilities and skill sets of data engineers and data modelers may overlap, the two positions are complementary. While data modelers create the structure and organization of the data inside these systems, data engineers concentrate on creating and maintaining the infrastructure that facilitates data access and storage. They guarantee that a company's data architecture is solid, expandable, and in line with corporate goals, facilitating efficient data-driven decision-making.

Important Elements of Data Modeling

In order to develop and execute databases and data systems that are effective, scalable, and able to satisfy the needs of diverse applications, data modeling is an essential step. Entities, characteristics, relationships, and keys are the main constituents. Comprehending these constituents is crucial in order to generate a cohesive and operational data model.

1. Entities

An identifiable, real-world thing or notion is represented by an entity. An entity in a database frequently maps to a table. We classify the data we wish to save using entities. An instance of a typical entity in a customer relationship management (CRM) system might be {Customer,} {Order,} and Product.

2. Attributes

An entity's qualities or features are its attributes. They contribute to a more thorough description of the entity by offering details about it. Columns in a database table are represented by attributes. Attributes for the {Customer} entity may be `Name}, {Address}, {Phone Number}, {CustomerID}, etc. Each entity instance's stored data type (integer, text, date, etc.) is defined by its attributes.

3. Relationships

Relationships show the connections between and interactions between the entities in a system. Relationships come in various forms:

One to One: There is only one relationship between each instance of Entity A and one instance of Entity B, and vice versa.

One-to-Many: While there can be zero, one, or more instances of Entity B connected to each instance of Entity A, there can only be one connection between each instance of Entity B and Entity A.

Many-to-Many: There can be zero, one, or more instances of Entity B associated with each instance of Entity A, and there can be zero, one, or more instances of Entity B associated with each instance of Entity B.

Relationships are essential for tying together data that is kept in several entities, making data retrieval easier, and enabling reporting across several tables.

4. Keys

Keys are particular characteristics that are used to create relationships between tables and uniquely identify records within a database. There are various kinds of keys.

Primary Key Every table record is uniquely identified by a column, or by a combination of columns. Within a table, no two records can have the same primary key value.

Foreign key a column—or group of columns—in one table that makes use of another table's primary key. Table relationships are created and enforced through the use of foreign keys.

Composite Key: a set of two or more columns in a table that together allow for the unique identification of every record.

Candidate Key any column, or group of columns, that the table may use as a primary key.

It is essential to comprehend and appropriately apply these essential elements in order to develop efficient data management, retrieval, and storage systems. When data modeling is done correctly, databases are scalable and performance-optimised, meeting the demands of developers and end users alike.

Data Model Phases

The conceptual, logical, and physical stages of data modeling are the three primary stages that it usually goes through. Every stage has a distinct function and builds upon the one before it to gradually translate conceptual concepts into a tangible database design. It is essential for anyone developing or overseeing data systems to comprehend these stages.

1. Conceptual Data Model

The most abstract level of data modeling is called the Conceptual Data Model. Without delving into the specifics of data storage, this phase concentrates on defining the high-level entities and their relationships. The fundamental objective is to communicate to non-technical stakeholders an understanding of the principal data objects pertinent to the business domain and their interconnections. This paradigm serves as a bridge between the technical implementation and the business requirements by facilitating early planning and communication.

2. Logical Data Model

By defining the links between the data pieces and their structure, the Logical Data Model enhances the conceptual model with further detail. The definition of entities, each entity's properties, primary keys, and foreign keys are all included. It is still unaffected by the technologies that will be used, nevertheless. Compared to the conceptual model, the logical model is more structured and thorough and starts to incorporate limitations and rules that control the data.

3. Physical Data Model

The most in-depth stage, known as the Physical Data Model, entails putting the data model into practice inside a particular database management system. This model creates a comprehensive schema that can be used in a database by translating the logical data model. It contains all the implementation-related information, including information on tables, columns, data types, constraints, indexes, triggers, and other features unique to a particular database.

Data Modeling Tools

Build Data Models: Assist in the development of conceptual, logical, and physical data models that enable the precise characterization of entities, characteristics, and connections. This fundamental feature aids in the original and continuous construction of the database architecture.

Collaboration and Central Repository: Provide team members the ability to work together on the creation and editing of data models. Consistency and efficiency in development are promoted by a central repository that guarantees all stakeholders have access to the most recent versions.

Reverse Engineering: Make it possible to import SQL scripts and create data models by connecting to databases that already exist. This is very helpful for integrating current databases or comprehending and recording legacy systems.

Forward Engineering: Enables the data model to be used to generate code or SQL scripts. This feature ensures that the physical database reflects the most recent model by streamlining the execution of database structural updates.

Assistance with Diverse Database Formats: Provide support for a variety of database management systems (DBMS), including Oracle, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, MySQL, and more. The tool's versatility guarantees its applicability in various technological contexts and tasks.

Version Control: To track modifications to data models over time, include or integrate version control systems. This functionality is essential for maintaining database structure iterations and making rollbacks to earlier versions easier when needed.

Use Cases for Data Modeling :

For data to be managed and used efficiently in a variety of circumstances, data modeling is essential. Here are a few common use cases for data modeling, along with a detailed explanation for each:

1. Data Acquisition

Determining how data is generated or gathered from diverse sources is a key component of data modeling's data acquisition process. This stage involves creating the data structure required to accommodate the incoming data and making sure it can be effectively integrated and stored. Organisations can make sure that the data gathered is structured to meet their analytical requirements and business procedures by modeling the data at this point. It aids in determining what kind of data is required, what format it should be in, and how it will be handled in order to be used further.

2. Data Loading

Data must be imported into the target system—a database, data warehouse, or data lake—after it has been obtained. By specifying the schema or structure that the data will be inserted into, data modeling plays a critical function in this situation. This involves establishing links between various data entities and defining how data from various sources will be mapped to the tables and columns of the database. Effective data loading is made possible by proper data modeling, which also promotes effective query, storage, and access performance.

3. Calculations for Business

Establishing the foundations for business computations requires data modeling. From the recorded data, these computations produce insights, measurements, and key performance indicators (KPIs). Organisations can specify how data from diverse sources can be combined, altered, and examined to carry out intricate business computations by developing a coherent data model. By doing this, it is made sure that the underlying data can allow the extraction of accurate and insightful business intelligence that can direct strategic planning and decision-making.

4. Distribution

The processed data is made available for analysis, reporting, and decision-making to end users or other systems during the distribution phase. At this point, the main goal of data modeling is to make sure the data is prepared and structured such that the intended audience can easily access and comprehend it. This could be establishing export formats for data exchange, developing APIs for programmatic access, or modeling data into dimensional schemas for usage in business intelligence tools. Efficient data modeling guarantees that information can be effortlessly shared and utilised by multiple parties on diverse platforms, augmenting its usefulness and significance.


In-depth discussion of data modeling was provided in this article, emphasizing the importance of this method for managing, storing, and gaining access to data in databases and data systems. We have demonstrated how data modeling integrates corporate needs into organized data frameworks, enabling effective data handling and perceptive analysis, by decomposing the process into conceptual, logical, and physical models.

The significance of comprehending business needs, the cooperative nature of database design involving several stakeholders, and the tactical application of data modeling technologies to expedite the development process are among the important lessons learned. Data modeling guarantees that data structures are scalable for future expansion and optimized for present requirements. has a no-code platform - where users can build computer vision models within minutes without any coding. Developers can sign up for free on

Want to add Vision AI machine vision to your business? Reach us on for a free consultation.

· 9 min read


It is now more important than ever to guarantee the operation, dependability, and general quality of software programs. By applying methodical procedures and approaches to assess and improve software quality, quality assurance is essential to reaching these goals. With technology developing at a breakneck speed, fresh and creative ideas are being developed to address the problems associated with software quality. Using generative artificial intelligence (Generative AI) is one such strategy.

Activities aimed at ensuring software products meet or surpass quality standards are referred to as quality assurance. The capacity of software quality to improve an application's dependability, efficiency, usability, and security makes it crucial. The aim of quality assurance (QA) specialists is to find software flaws and vulnerabilities so that risks may be reduced and end users can be satisfied. They achieve this by putting strict testing procedures into place and performing in-depth code reviews.

There has been a lot of interest in generative AI. Generative AI uses machine learning techniques to produce novel and creative outputs based on patterns and data it has been trained on, in contrast to classic AI systems that depend on explicit rules and human-programmed instructions.

Generative AI can be used in the quality assurance environment to automate and optimise certain QA process steps. Pattern recognition, anomaly detection, and potential problem prediction that could affect software quality are all capabilities of generative AI models. Early defect discovery is made possible by this proactive strategy, which enables QA and development teams to take corrective action and raise the overall standard of the program. Furthermore, synthetic test data generation and test case generation automation can be facilitated by Generative AI.

The incorporation of Generative AI into software development, as technology develops, has promise for optimising quality assurance endeavours and facilitating the creation of software applications that are more resilient, dependable, and intuitive.

Comprehending Generative Artificial Intelligence for Software Quality Assurance

The notion of generative artificial intelligence

The field of artificial intelligence has undergone a paradigm change with the introduction of generative AI, which emphasises machines' capacity to create unique material instead of only adhering to preset guidelines. With this method, machines can learn from large datasets, spot trends, and produce results based on that understanding.

Deep learning and neural networks are two methods used by generative AI models to comprehend the underlying structure and properties of the data they are trained on. These models are able to produce new instances that are similar to the training data, but with distinctive variants and imaginative components, by examining patterns, correlations, and dependencies. Because of its creative ability, generative AI is a potent tool for software quality assurance among other fields.

Generative AI's Place in Software Testing

The creation of test cases is an essential component of software testing since it impacts the process's efficiency and breadth of coverage. Software testers have historically created test cases by hand. This can be done manually, which can be laborious and prone to error, or with the aid of test automation tools. Nevertheless, test case generation can be done more effectively and automatically with generative AI approaches, which enhances testing process speed and quality.

Improving the Generation of Test Cases

In order to understand the patterns and logic that underlie a software system, generative AI models can examine user needs, specifications, and existing software code. These models are capable of producing test cases that span a wide range of scenarios, including both expected and edge cases, by comprehending the links between inputs, outputs, and expected behaviours. In addition to lowering the amount of manual labour needed, this automated test case development expands the testing process's coverage by examining a greater variety of potential inputs and scenarios.

Recognizing Complicated Software Problems

Furthermore, generative AI is particularly good at spotting complicated software bugs that could be hard for human testers to find. Complex connections, non-linear behaviours, and interactions in software systems can result in unforeseen vulnerabilities and flaws. Large volumes of software-related data, such as code, logs, and execution traces, can be analysed by generative AI models to find hidden patterns and abnormalities. These models identify possible software problems that could otherwise go undetected by distinguishing abnormalities from expected behaviour. Early identification makes it possible for QA and development teams to quickly address important problems, which results in software that is more dependable and robust.

The advantages of generative AI

QA gains a great deal from generative AI. Because of its special abilities and methods, there are more opportunities to increase test coverage, improve issue identification, and hasten software development. The testing industry benefits from it in the following ways:

1. Enhanced Efficiency and Test Coverage

The capacity of generative AI to increase test coverage is its main advantage for software quality assurance. Generative AI models may automatically produce extensive test cases that cover a variety of scenarios and inputs by utilising algorithms and vast datasets. The effort needed is decreased while the testing process is made more comprehensive and efficient thanks to this automated test case generation.

Consider a web application that needs to be tested on many platforms, devices, and browsers. With the use of generative AI, test cases covering various combinations of platforms, devices, and browsers may be produced, providing thorough coverage without requiring a lot of human environment setup or test case generation. As a result, testing becomes more effective, bugs are found more quickly, and trust is raised.

2. Improving Bug Detection

Complex software problems that may be difficult for human testers to find can be quickly found by generative AI. Large amounts of software-related data, including code and logs, are analysed by these methods in order to find trends and deviations from typical application behaviour. Generative AI models are able to identify possible flaws, vulnerabilities early in the development process by identifying these abnormalities.

Take into consideration, for instance, an e-commerce platform that must guarantee the precision and dependability of its product suggestion system. By creating fictitious user profiles and modelling a range of purchase habits, generative AI can greatly improve testing and development of such systems.

3. Generative AI-Assisted Software Development Acceleration

By streamlining several phases of the development lifecycle, generative AI not only improves the quality assurance process but also speeds up software development. With the help of generative AI, developers can concentrate more on original thinking and creative problem-solving by automating processes like test case creation, code reworking, and even design prototyping.

For instance, generative AI can help with the autonomous generation of design prototypes in the field of software design, depending on user preferences and requirements. Generative AI models can suggest fresh and inventive design options by examining current design patterns and user feedback. This shortens the time and effort needed to develop a refined design and expedites the design iteration process.

Implementing Generative AI Presents Challenges

AI technologies to replace testers

There is still disagreement over the idea of AI completely replacing software testers. Even though generative AI can automate some steps in the testing process, software testing still greatly benefits from human expertise and intuition. AI models are trained using available data, and the calibre and variety of the training data has a significant impact on the models' efficacy. They might, however, find it difficult to handle peculiar situations or recognize problems that are unique to a given setting and need for human judgement

In addition to finding faults, software testing also entails determining usability, comprehending user expectations, and guaranteeing regulatory compliance. These elements frequently call on domain expertise, human judgement, and critical thinking. Although generative AI can improve and supplement testing, it is more likely to supplement rather than completely replace software testers in their duty.

Appropriate Use of AI

As AI technologies develop, it's critical to address ethical issues and make sure AI is used responsibly in software testing. Among the crucial factors are:

1. Fairness and Bias:

When generative AI models are trained on historical data, biases may be introduced if the data represents imbalances or biases in society. Selecting training data with care and assessing the fairness of AI-generated results are crucial.

2. Data security and privacy:

When generative AI is used, huge datasets that can include private or sensitive data are analysed. To preserve user privacy, it is essential to follow stringent privacy and data protection laws, get informed consent, and put strong security measures in place.

3. Openness and Definability:

AI models can be intricate and challenging to understand, particularly generative AI based on deep learning. Building trust and comprehending how the system generates its outputs depend on ensuring openness and explainability in AI-driven decisions.

4. Liability and Accountability:

Since AI has been used in software testing, concerns about responsibility and liability may surface when decisions made by AI have an adverse effect on users or produce unintended results. Addressing potential legal and ethical ramifications requires defining duty and establishing clear accountability mechanisms.

5. Openness and Definability:

AI models can be intricate and challenging to understand, particularly generative AI based on deep learning. Building trust and comprehending how the system generates its outputs depend on ensuring openness and explainability in AI-driven decisions.

6. Liability and Accountability:

Since AI has been used in software testing, concerns about responsibility and liability may surface when decisions made by AI have an adverse effect on users or produce unintended results. Addressing potential legal and ethical ramifications requires defining duty and establishing clear accountability mechanisms.

Apart from these particular activities, generative AI is anticipated to be employed to enhance the efficacy and efficiency of automated software testing on a broader scale. Generative AI, for instance, can be utilised to:

1. Sort test cases into priority lists:

The most likely test cases to uncover bugs can be found using generative AI. This can assist in concentrating testing efforts on the most important domains.

2. Automate upkeep of tests:

Test case maintenance can be automated with generative AI. This can guarantee that tests are updated in response to program modifications.


The incorporation of generative AI approaches is the way forward for automated software testing. Promising potential for improved test data generation, intelligent test case development, adaptive testing systems, test scripting and execution automation, test optimization, and resource allocation will arise as generative AI develops.

Generative AI has a bright future in automated software testing. Generative AI is expected to advance in strength and versatility as it develops further. This will create new avenues for increasing software quality and automating software testing. has a no-code platform - where users can build computer vision models within minutes without any coding. Developers can sign up for free on

Want to add Vision AI machine vision to your business? Reach us on for a free consultation.

· 7 min read


Koala is a conversation chatbot that was just introduced by UC Berkeley. It is built in the ChatGPT manner, but it is much smaller and performs just as well. According to the research findings, Koala is frequently chosen over Alpaca and shows to be an effective tool for producing answers to a range of user concerns. Furthermore, Koala performs at least as well as ChatGPT in more than half of the instances. The findings demonstrate that when trained on carefully selected data, smaller models can attain virtually equal performance to larger models.

Instead of just growing the size of the current systems, the team is urging the community to concentrate on selecting high-quality datasets to build smaller, safer, and more effective models.

They add that because Koala is still a research prototype and has limits with regard to dependability, safety, and content, it should not be used for commercial purposes.

What is Koala?

Koala is a new model that was refined using publicly available interaction data that was scraped from the internet. It was especially focused on data that included interaction with very powerful closed-source models like ChatGPT. Fine-tuning the LLaMA base model involves using conversation data collected from public datasets and the web, which includes high-quality user query responses from other big language models, question answering datasets, and human feedback datasets. Based on human evaluation on real-world user prompts, the resulting model, Koala-13B, demonstrates competitive performance when compared to previous models. According to the essay, learning from superior datasets can help smaller models overcome some of their weaknesses and eventually even surpass the power of large, closed-source models.

Koala Architecture:


Koala is a chatbot that Meta's LLaMA was tuned using dialogue data collected from the internet. We also give the findings of a user research that contrasts our model with ChatGPT and Stanford's Alpaca. We further explain the dataset curation and training method of our model. According to our findings, Koala can proficiently address a wide range of user inquiries, producing outcomes that are frequently superior to those of Alpaca and, in more than half of the instances, at least equal to those of ChatGPT.

Specifically, it implies that, when trained on carefully selected data, models small enough to be executed locally can mimic a significant portion of the performance of their larger models. This may mean, for instance, that rather than just growing the scale of current systems, the community should work harder to curate high-quality datasets, as this might enable safer, more realistic, and more competent models. We stress that Koala is currently a research prototype and should not be used for anything other than research. Although we hope that its release will serve as a useful community resource, it still has significant issues with stability, safety, and content.

Koala Overview:

Large language models (LLMs) have made it possible for chatbots and virtual assistants to become more and more sophisticated. Examples of these systems are ChatGPT, Bard, Bing Chat, and Claude, which can all produce poetry and answer to a variety of user inquiries in addition to offering sample code. To train, many of the most powerful LLMs need massive amounts of computer power and frequently make use of proprietary datasets that are vast in size. This implies that in the future, a small number of companies will control a big portion of the highly capable LLMs, and that both users and researchers will have to pay to interact with these models without having direct control over how they are changed and enhanced.

Koala offers yet another piece of evidence in support of this argument. Koala is optimised using publicly accessible interaction data that is scraped from the internet, with a particular emphasis on data involving interactions with extremely powerful closed-source models like ChatGPT. These include question answering and human feedback datasets, as well as high-quality user query responses from other big language models. Human evaluation on real-world user prompts suggests that the resulting model, Koala-13B, performs competitively with previous models.

The findings imply that learning from superior datasets can somewhat offset the drawbacks of smaller models and, in the future, may even be able to match the power of huge, closed-source models. This may mean, for instance, that rather than just growing the scale of current systems, the community should work harder to curate high-quality datasets, as this might enable safer, more realistic, and more competent models.

Datasets and Training:

Sifting through training data is one of the main challenges in developing dialogue models. Well-known chat models such as ChatGPT, Bard, Bing Chat, and Claude rely on proprietary datasets that have been heavily annotated by humans. We collected conversation data from public databases and the web to create our training set, which we then used to build Koala. A portion of this data consists of user-posted online conversations with massive language models (e.g., ChatGPT).

Instead concentrating on gathering a large amount of web data through scraping, we concentrate on gathering a small but high-quality dataset. For question responding, we leverage public datasets, human input (positive and negative ratings on responses), and conversations with language models that already exist. Below, we offer the specifics of the dataset composition.

Limitations and Challenges

Koala has limitations, just like other language models, and when used improperly, it can be dangerous. We note that, probably as a consequence of the dialogue fine-tuning, Koala can experience hallucinations and produce erroneous responses in a very confident tone. This may have the regrettable consequence of implying that smaller models acquire the bigger language models' assured style before they acquire the same degree of factuality; if this is the case, this is a constraint that needs to be investigated in more detail in subsequent research. When utilised improperly, Koala's hallucinogenic responses may aid in the dissemination of false information, spam, and other materials.

1. Traits and Prejudices:

Due to the biases present in the discourse data used for training, our model may contribute to negative preconceptions, discrimination, and other negative outcomes.

2. Absence of Common Sense:

Although large language models are capable of producing seemingly intelligible and grammatically correct text, they frequently lack common sense information that we take for granted as humans. This may result in improper or absurd responses.

3. Restricted Knowledge:

Large language models may find it difficult to comprehend the subtleties and context of a conversation. Additionally, they might not be able to recognize irony or sarcasm, which could result in miscommunication.

Future Projects with Koala

It is our aim that the Koala model will prove to be a valuable platform for further academic study on large language models. It is small enough to be used with modest compute power, yet capable enough to demonstrate many of the features we associate with contemporary LLMs. Some potentially fruitful directions to consider are:

1. Alignment and safety:

Koala enables improved alignment with human intents and additional research on language model safety.

2. Bias in models:

We can now comprehend large language model biases, misleading correlations, quality problems in dialogue datasets, and strategies to reduce these biases thanks to Koala.

3. Comprehending extensive language models:

Koala inference makes (formerly black-box) language models more interpretable by allowing us to better examine and comprehend the internal workings of conversational language models on comparatively cheap commodity GPUs.


Small language models can be trained faster and with less computational power than bigger models, as demonstrated by Koala's findings. For academics and developers who might not have access to high-performance computing resources, this makes them more accessible. has a no-code platform - where users can build computer vision models within minutes without any coding. Developers can sign up for free on

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· 11 min read


Imagine a future where all tasks, no matter how simple or complex, are completed more quickly, intelligently, and effectively. This is the current state of affairs. Modern technology combined with clever automation techniques has brought about previously unheard-of levels of productivity improvements.

By 2030, the market for digital workforce is projected to have grown by 22.5% year and reach $18.69 billion. With such rapid growth predicted, companies must implement worker automation.

Investigate the intelligent automation technologies that apply to your sector and methods now. Determine which areas within your company can benefit from a digital transformation in terms of increased productivity, lower expenses, and improved processes. You'll discover how digital workers & AI agents are transforming corporate procedures in this article.

An AI Digital Worker: What Is It?

Artificial intelligence (AI) digital workers are neither people nor robots. Rather than that, it's a completely new method of workplace automation. To support your marketing objectives, consider them as collections of technologies and data that can perform jobs and combine ideas.

Digital assistants with artificial intelligence should ideally be engaged team members that can support your human staff while managing regular duties. They are hired to relieve you of tedious tasks so that your employees can concentrate on strategically important, strategically engaging work that advances your company.

What are AI agents?

An artificial intelligence (AI) agent is a software application that can interact with its surroundings, interpret data, and act in response to the data in order to accomplish predetermined objectives. Artificial intelligence (AI) agents can mimic intelligent behaviour; they can be as basic as rule-based systems or as sophisticated as sophisticated machine learning models. They may require outside oversight or control and base their choices on predefined guidelines or trained models.

An advanced software program that can function autonomously without human supervision is known as an autonomous AI agent. It is not dependent on constant human input to think, act, or learn. These agents are frequently employed to improve efficiency and smooth operations across a variety of industries, including banking, healthcare, and finance.

For example:

  1. Text responses resembling those of a person can be produced by the AI agent AutoGPT, which is capable of understanding the conversation's context and producing pertinent responses in line with it.

  2. An intelligent virtual agent called AgentGPT was created with the purpose of interacting with clients and offering tailored advice. In response to inquiries from customers, it can comprehend natural language and deliver pertinent answers.

Characteristics of an AI agent:

1. Independence:

An artificial intelligence (AI) virtual agent can carry out activities on its own without continual human assistance or input.

2. Perception:

Using a variety of sensors, including cameras and microphones, the agent function senses and interprets the world in which they operate.

3. Reactivity:

To accomplish its objectives, an AI agent can sense its surroundings and adjust its actions accordingly.

4. Reasoning and decision-making:

AI agents are intelligent tools with the ability to reason and make decisions in order to accomplish objectives. They process information and take appropriate action by using algorithms and reasoning processes.

5. Education:

Through the use of machine, deep, and reinforcement learning components and methodologies, they can improve their performance.

6. Interaction:

AI agents are capable of several forms of communication with people or other agents, including text messaging, speech recognition, and natural language understanding and response.

Structure of an AI agent:


1. Environment

The realm or area in which an AI agent functions is referred to as its environment. It could be a digital location like a webpage or a physical space like a factory floor.

2. Sensors

An AI agent uses sensors as tools to sense its surroundings. These may be microphones, cameras, or any other kind of sensory input that the AI agent could employ to learn about its surroundings.

3. Actuators

An AI agent employs actuators to communicate with its surroundings. These could be computer screens, robotic arms, or any other tool the AI agent can use to modify the surroundings.

4. Decision-making mechanism

An AI agent's decision-making system is its brain. It analyses the data acquired by the sensors and uses the actuators to determine what needs to be done. The actual magic occurs in the decision-making process. AI agents make educated decisions and carry out tasks efficiently by utilising a variety of decision-making methods, including rule-based systems, expert systems, and neural networks.

5. Learning system

The AI agent can pick up knowledge from its experiences and interactions with the outside world thanks to the learning system. Over time, it employs methods including supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning to enhance the AI agent's performance.

How does an AI Agent work?

Step 1: Observing the surroundings

An independent artificial intelligence agent must initially acquire environmental data. It can accomplish this by gathering data from multiple sources or by using sensors.

Step 2: Handling the incoming information

After gathering information in Step 1, the agent gets it ready for processing. This could entail putting the data in order, building a knowledge base, or developing internal representations that the agent can utilise.

Step 3: Making a choice

The agent makes a well-informed decision based on its goals and knowledge base by applying reasoning techniques like statistical analysis or logic. Applying preset guidelines or machine learning techniques may be necessary for this.

Step 4: Making plans and carrying them out

To achieve its objectives, the agent devises a strategy or a set of actions. This could entail developing a methodical plan, allocating resources as efficiently as possible, or taking into account different constraints and priorities. The agent follows through on every step in its plan to get the intended outcome. Additionally, it can take in input from the surroundings and update its knowledge base or modify its course of action based on that information.

Step 5: Acquiring Knowledge and Enhancing Performance

The agent can get knowledge from its own experiences after acting. The agent can perform better and adjust to different environments and circumstances thanks to this feedback loop.

Types of AI Agents:

1. Simple reflex agents are preprogrammed to react according to predetermined rules to particular environmental inputs.

2. Model-based reflex agents keep an internal model of their surroundings and utilise it to guide decisions are known as model-based reflex agents.

3. Goal-based agents carry out a program to accomplish particular objectives and make decisions based on assessments of the surrounding conditions.

4. Utility-based agents weigh the possible results of their decisions and select the course of action that maximises predicted utility.

5. Learning agents use machine learning techniques to make better decisions.

How do AI agents and digital workers work?

Artificial intelligence digital workers employ multiple forms of artificial intelligence to do tasks. However digital agents blend large language models, or LLMs, with generative AI, which is meant to produce new material or data (made to understand, develop, and operate with human language).

LLMs and generative AI may be familiar to you from other AI tools. Popular AI chatbot ChatGPT, which uses generative AI technology to generate responses to questions, is regarded as an LLM.

1. Machine Learning (ML):

Under your guidance, digital AI staff members can learn, adjust, and eventually perform better.

2. Natural Language Processing (NLP):

Digital workers that are proficient in language are better equipped to comprehend and translate human instructions into practical steps.

3. Robotic Process Automation (RPA):

RPA, possibly the most well-known type of AI, automates jobs that are repetitive and rule-based, such as sending emails, generating content templates, and filling out spreadsheets.

Benefits Of digital workers

1. A rise in output

Digital workers don't require breaks or holidays because they can work nonstop. As a result, work may be done more quickly and effectively, increasing productivity for your company.

2. Performance devoid of errors

Digital workers are not prone to errors like people are. They ensure precise and error-free performance by adhering to predetermined rules and algorithms. This can greatly lower expensive mistakes and raise the calibre of output.

3. Savings on costs

The cost of hiring and training human labour can be high. Conversely, digital workers don't have to pay for ongoing expenses like salaries and benefits and only need to pay small upfront costs. They are therefore an affordable option for companies trying to maximize their spending.

4- Quicker reaction times

Digital workers can respond to consumer enquiries and complaints more quickly because they can manage vast volumes of data and requests at once. By offering prompt support, this contributes to improving customer satisfaction.


The need for jobs to be accomplished increases along with the growth of your firm. You can scale up or down as needed with digital workers without having to worry about scarce resources or go through a drawn-out hiring procedure.

There are several advantages to integrating digital workers into your company operations, such as higher output, error-free performance, cost savings, quicker reaction times, and scalability. Businesses can succeed more and obtain a competitive edge by using this cutting-edge technology.

How do you integrate digital workers into your company?

1. Recognize recurrent duties

Determine which jobs require a lot of time and repetition first. These duties can include everything from email management and file organisation to data entry and report creation. Your digital employees will have more time to devote to more strategic endeavours if these chores are automated.

2. Pick the appropriate tools

Choosing the appropriate hardware and software solutions is essential after determining which tasks require automation. The market is flooded with automation technologies designed expressly to meet the needs of digital workers. Seek for solutions with an intuitive user interface and simple interaction with current systems.

3. Simplify procedures

Automation involves not just taking the place of manual operations but also optimising workflows. Examine your present procedures and pinpoint any places where bottlenecks arise or where extra steps might be cut. Workflows can be made more efficient for your digital workers by making sure that tasks flow smoothly from one to the next.

4- Offer guidance and assistance

You may need to provide your digital workers with some training and support when implementing automation in the workplace. Make sure they know how to utilize the new equipment and are at ease with the modifications. Provide continuing assistance and welcome input so that any necessary corrections can be made.

5-Assess development

After automation is put into place, it's critical to routinely assess its efficacy. Monitor key performance indicators (KPIs) such saving time, mistake rates, and employee satisfaction. You can use this data to determine whether any more changes or improvements are necessary.

Problems and Challenges with integrating digital workers & AI Agents:

1. Requirements for skill sets

IT know-how particular to digital workers is needed to integrate them into an organisation. This makes it difficult to hire new staff members or retrain current ones to handle the technology required to serve these remote workers.

2-Redefining the job

Employees may need to change their responsibilities or face job redundancies as a result of the arrival of digital workers. Employees who struggle to adjust to increased duties or who fear job uncertainty may react negatively to this.

3. Security of data

Data security becomes a top priority when managing sensitive information by digital workers. It is imperative for businesses to implement strong security protocols to safeguard sensitive information from any breaches or assaults.

4-Assimilation with current systems

It can be difficult and time-consuming to smoothly integrate digital workers with current IT systems. Compatibility problems could occur and force businesses to spend money on new software or equipment.

5. Moral implications

As artificial intelligence (AI) technology develops, moral questions about the employment of digital labour arise. In order to guarantee equitable and conscientious utilisation of new technologies, concerns of data privacy, algorithmic bias, and accountability must be thoroughly examined.

6. Data bias:

When making decisions, an autonomous artificial intelligence agent program mainly depends on data. Their use of skewed data may result in unjust or discriminating conclusions.

7. Absence of accountability:

Since proactive agents are capable of making decisions without human assistance, it can be challenging to hold them responsible for their deeds.

8. Lack of transparency:

Learning agents' decision-making processes can be convoluted and opaque, making it challenging to comprehend how they reach particular conclusions.


Digital workers of today are built to recall previous encounters at work and absorb new ones. They can communicate with several human personnel and operate across systems and processes. The advent of a truly hybrid workforce, wherein people perform high-purpose work assisted by digital workers, could be accelerated by these skills. With this mixed workforce, the method of completion will be more important than the location of work. has a no-code platform - where users can build computer vision models within minutes without any coding. Developers can sign up for free on

Want to add Vision AI machine vision to your business? Reach us on for a free consultation.